it seems both have similiarities.. - Both have an active personality - Both super form make them have raising yellow hair (Super Saiyan Goku and Super Sonic) - Both have a shipping with the anti hero of their series (Goku x Vegeta and Sonic x Shadow) - Both have seven important artifact that always used (Dragon Ball and Chaos Emerald)
I think Goku would always have a hard time with Super Sonic in his regular Super Saiyan form, no matter which saga he's from, don't forget that Super Sonic can be very resilient and has a lot of durability. However, if we're talking about Majin Buu saga Goku, he can power up to Super Saiyan 3, then Sonic would indeed be screwed, unless he could power up to Hyper Sonic or something.
I confess it doesn't make much sense, Super Sonic will always have the same power level (although the current Super Sonic seems to be stronger than the one in the earlier games), but for the sake of an equal fight, if you say so...
Nice picture,I can't say who would win (some people may get on me for that but I can't tell[And I know you didn't ask for who would win I just brought it up]) If I think first thought goku would win,but if I think a little harder sonic can use chaos control which allows him to warp they're both moving at the speed of light and goku takes a lot of time to charge attacks,while sonic could throw off his concentration,though sonic would be caught off guard a few times too,and goku has a size advantage,though sonic's has always been a quick thinker so he could get out of some tight nothches,it's a real head scratcher for me.